What is a Periodontist?


Table of Contents

Often overshadowed by general dentists and orthodontists, the periodontist plays a crucial role in maintaining and treating interdental health. This article delves into periodontology, highlighting The Practice’s expertise, functions, and contributions. From gum disease to the intricacies of dental implants and beyond, let’s explore the vital role of periodontists in preserving smiles, oral health, and wellness.


Definition and Role of a Periodontist

A periodontist specialist focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases affecting the gums and teeth. They undergo training beyond dental school, which encompasses the study of periodontal diseases and the placement of dental implants.


Key Roles and Responsibilities in Maintaining Dental Health

A periodontist diagnoses and treats gum diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis. They employ various techniques, including deep cleanings (scaling and root planing), gum grafting, and surgical procedures, to manage and reverse the progression of these conditions, preserving the health and stability of the teeth and surrounding tissues.


The distinction between a Periodontist and a Dentist

While both are trained in dentistry, periodontists specialize in treating gum diseases and placing dental implants. General dentists focus on preventive care, restorative treatments like fillings and crowns, and oral health maintenance. When gum disease or periodontal issues arise, a referral may be necessary. Thus, periodontists serve as invaluable partners in comprehensive dental health management.


Education and Training

Periodontists complete a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD) degree from an accredited dental school. This provides students with training in oral health, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, and treatments.


Training and Residency Programs

After obtaining a degree, aspiring periodontists must undergo additional training. This involves completing a postgraduate residency program accredited by the American Dental Association (ADA) or similar regulatory bodies in other countries. These programs last three years and focus on diagnosing, treating, and managing gum diseases and surgical techniques for dental implant placement and other procedures.


Importance of Continuing Education and Specialization

Many periodontists pursue further certification in implantology or periodontal plastic surgery. By participating in continuing education courses, seminars, and conferences, periodontists have the skills to provide the highest quality of care. 


Periodontal Diseases and Conditions

The two common diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the early stage of gum disease characterized by inflammation. Without treatment, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, irreversible damage to the gums, bone, and tooth loss.


Symptoms and Causes of Gum Diseases

Conditions may include swollen or tender gums, bleeding during brushing or flossing, persistent bad breath, receding gums, and loose or shifting teeth. These symptoms should prompt a visit to the dentist for evaluation and treatment. Gum diseases are caused by plaque accumulation, a bacteria that forms on teeth and along the gumline. Poor oral hygiene, smoking, genetic predisposition, hormonal changes, certain medications, and systemic health conditions can also contribute to the development of gum diseases.


Common Treated Conditions: Gum Recession, Periodontal Pockets

Gum recession occurs when the gum tissue wears away, exposing the roots of teeth. This can increase tooth sensitivity, create aesthetic concerns, and cause gum disease to progress. Periodontal pockets are spaces between the gums and teeth due to the loss of attachment and bone support.


Diagnostic Tools

X-rays, including periapical, bitewing, and panoramic radiographs, help periodontists assess the extent of bone loss, detect dental caries, and identify abnormalities that may contribute to or indicate the presence of periodontal diseases. 


Periodontal Charting

Periodontal charting involves systematically recording the health and condition of the periodontium (gums, bone, and periodontal ligament) using a periodontal probe. This includes measurements of pocket depths, gingival recession, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing, and other findings. Periodontal charting serves as a baseline assessment and facilitates monitoring of disease progression and response to treatment. It also provides information for treatment planning and helps periodontists customize treatments.



Biomarkers such as inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, and genetic markers have shown promise in detecting periodontal disease and assessing treatment outcomes.


Treatments Offered by Periodontists



Scaling and Root planning, also known as deep cleaning, involves removing plaque and tartar (calculus) deposits from teeth and below the gumline. This procedure eliminates bacteria and toxins contributing to gum inflammation, preventing disease progression.



Antibiotics may be prescribed to control infection and inflammation. Medications may be administered orally, topically (as mouth rinses or gels), or placed into periodontal pockets to target localized infection.


Surgical Procedures

  • Flap Surgery (Pocket Reduction Surgery) cleans periodontal pockets that non-surgical treatments cannot address. During the procedure, the periodontist lifts the gum tissue to remove calculus deposits, reduce pocket depths, and clean the teeth’s roots. The gum tissue is then repositioned and sutured.
  • Soft Tissue Grafts: These are the transplantation of healthy gum tissue to restore gum recession, improve contours, and enhance aesthetics. Grafts can also reduce tooth sensitivity and prevent gum recession.
  • Bone Grafting: Performed to regenerate tissue in areas where bone loss has occurred. Bone grafts may be derived from the patient’s bone (autograft), donor bone (allograft), or synthetic materials. Bone grafting stabilizes teeth, enhances dental implant success rates, and improves oral health.

Dental Implants and Cosmetic Procedures

Periodontists are skilled in placing and maintaining dental implants and titanium posts inserted into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. Dental implants offer a durable and natural-looking solution, restoring function and aesthetics to the smile. Periodontists also perform cosmetic procedures such as gum contouring, crown lengthening, and ridge augmentation to improve the gums and teeth’ symmetry, balance, and harmony.


The Role of Dental Implants in Periodontal Treatment

Dental implants are crucial in treating advanced periodontal disease and tooth loss. Periodontists are skilled in placing and maintaining implants for individuals requiring tooth replacement as part of their periodontal treatment plan.


Advances in Periodontal Surgery and Regenerative Treatments


Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR)

GTR is a technique that utilizes barrier membranes to promote the growth of new bone and soft tissue. The membranes act as barriers to prevent the migration of gum tissue into the defect space, allowing bone and soft tissue to regenerate and restore periodontal health.


Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy

It involves using concentrated platelets from the patient’s blood to accelerate healing and tissue regeneration following periodontal surgery. Platelets contain growth factors and cytokines that stimulate cell proliferation and tissue repair.


Laser-Assisted Periodontal Therapy

Dental lasers remove diseased tissue, decontaminate periodontal pockets, and promote tissue regeneration. Laser therapy offers several advantages, including less discomfort, reduced bleeding, and faster healing.


Integrative Care


Collaboration with Dentists and Other Specialists

Periodontists collaborate with general dentists and other specialists. This involves open communication, shared treatment planning, and mutual respect.


Team Approach to Complex Cases

Depending on the nature of the case, the team may include general dentists, periodontists, prosthodontists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, and other specialists. The dental team can develop treatment plans tailored to each patient’s needs and goals by pooling their expertise. 


Referrals and Integrating Periodontal Care with Treatment Plans

General dentists often serve as the primary point of contact and may refer individuals to periodontists for evaluation and treatment. Periodontists recommend integrating periodontal care into the patient’s dental treatment plan. 


Periodontal Maintenance and Post-Treatment Care


Cleanings and Check-ups

These visits occur every three to four months, although the frequency may vary. During a cleaning appointment, the periodontist will remove plaque and tartar buildup from above and below the gum line, assess the health of your gums, and monitor for signs of disease recurrence.


Home Care Recommendations and Follow-ups

The periodontist will provide recommendations based on your needs and treatment. This may include proper brushing and flossing techniques, antimicrobial mouth rinses or prescription toothpaste, and other therapies to control bacterial plaque and prevent disease recurrence. 


Managing Risk Factors and the Importance of Oral Hygiene

This may include addressing underlying systemic conditions such as diabetes or smoking cessation. Maintaining excellent oral hygiene habits is paramount. Brush teeth twice daily with fluoridated toothpaste, floss daily, and use interdental brushes or water flossers as recommended, which are essential components of a successful home care routine.


Patient Education and Prevention


Strategies for Early Detection of Periodontal Diseases

Dental check-ups allow for the detection of periodontal problems through evaluations, including periodontal charting, probing depths, and dental X-rays. Detecting gum disease in its early stages prevents disease progression and preserves oral health.


Educational Materials and Resources for Patients

Periodontists and dental offices may offer brochures, pamphlets, videos, and online resources that explain the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for gum disease. These materials may also include tips for maintaining optimal oral hygiene, proper brushing and flossing techniques, and lifestyle recommendations.


Factors Affecting Periodontal Health and How to Prevent Diseases

Several elements can impact periodontal health, including smoking, poor nutrition, stress, and certain systemic conditions such as diabetes. A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains provides nutrients for gum tissue and bone regeneration. 


Advances in Periodontics

Recent advancements offer innovative solutions for the diagnosis and treatment of gum diseases. Laser technology, for example, has revolutionized periodontal therapy by providing minimally invasive alternatives to traditional surgical procedures. Dental lasers can target diseased tissue, decontaminate periodontal pockets, and promote tissue regeneration with less discomfort and faster healing than conventional methods. 


Research, Trends, and Evolution in Periodontics

Research explores novel treatments and diagnostic techniques. Current trends in the field focus on therapies, such as regenerative procedures and targeted antimicrobial therapies, tailored to patient needs. The evolution of periodontics involves integrating technological advancements, such as digital imaging and computer-aided design, to enhance diagnosis and treatment planning, contributing to more effective and minimally invasive interventions.


The Role of Professional Organizations

American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) are critical in advancing periodontal care through education, research, and advocacy. These organizations provide continuing education opportunities, disseminate evidence-based guidelines and best practices, and promote interdisciplinary collaboration. 



In conclusion, understanding the vital role of a periodontist in maintaining oral health cannot be overstated. These specialized dentists are not just experts in treating gum disease; they are the architects behind the foundation of a beautiful smile—your gums. From diagnosing conditions that might otherwise go unnoticed to performing intricate procedures that restore and enhance the health of your gums and the stability of your teeth, periodontists are essential allies in your journey toward optimal oral health. Whether you’re seeking treatment for gum disease, considering dental implants, or looking to address gum recession, a periodontist has the skills and expertise to guide you toward the best outcomes. Remember, healthy gums are not just the backdrop of a healthy smile but its cornerstone. Trusting your care to a periodontist ensures that this foundation remains strong, resilient, and beautiful for years.

Frequently Asked Questions

Dentists focus on preventive care, general dentistry procedures (cleanings, fillings, and root canals), and addressing oral health issues. Periodontists specialize in preventing, diagnosing, treating gum diseases, and placing dental implants. They undergo additional years of training beyond dental school.

Periodontal maintenance visits every three to four months are recommended for individuals with a history of gum disease or those undergoing treatment. The periodontist will provide recommendations based on your condition and treatment plan.

Periodontal treatment aims to control the progression of gum disease, reduce inflammation, and restore periodontal health. Individuals can manage gum disease and prevent further damage with diligent home care, professional cleanings, and monitoring.

Symptoms include red, swollen, or bleeding gums; persistent bad breath; receding gums; loose teeth; and changes in the fit of dentures or dental appliances. If you have a family history of gum disease, are considering dental implant placement, or have been referred by your dentist, it may be beneficial to schedule a consultation.

Maintain good oral hygiene habits, including brushing your teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste, flossing daily to remove plaque and debris between the teeth and along the gum line, and using antimicrobial mouth rinses as recommended. Avoiding tobacco use, maintaining a wholesome diet, and attending dental check-ups for cleanings and oral exams can prevent gum diseases.